Play at Work: How Games Inspire Breakthrough Thinking - Adam L. Penenberg - Google книги
Another approach to gamification is to make existing tasks feel more like games. Game design elements are the basic building blocks of gamification applications. Points are basic elements of a multitude of games and gamified applications. Points allow the players' in-game behavior to be measured, and they serve as continuous and immediate feedback and as a reward.
Badges are defined as visual representations of achievements  and can be earned and collected within the gamification environment. They confirm the players' achievements, symbolize their merits,  and visibly show their accomplishment of levels or goals. Leaderboards rank players according to their relative success, measuring them against a certain success criterion. However, the motivational potential of leaderboards is mixed.
Werbach and Hunter  regard them as effective motivators if there are only a few points left to the next level or position, but as demotivators, if players find themselves at the bottom end of the leaderboard. Competition caused by leaderboards can create social pressure to increase the player's level of engagement and can consequently have a constructive effect on participation and learning. Performance graphs, which are often used in simulation or strategy games, provide information about the players' performance compared to their preceding performance during a game.
Unlike the social reference standard of leaderboards, performance graphs are based on an individual reference standard. By graphically displaying the player's performance over a fixed period, they focus on improvements. Motivation theory postulates that this fosters mastery orientation, which is particularly beneficial to learning. Meaningful stories are game design elements that do not relate to the player's performance. The narrative context in which a gamified application can be embedded contextualizes activities and characters in the game and gives them meaning beyond the mere quest for points and achievements.
The latter can enrich boring, barely stimulating contexts, and, consequently, inspire and motivate players particularly if the story is in line with their personal interests.
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Avatars are visual representations of players within the game or gamification environment. Their main formal requirement is that they unmistakably identify the players and set them apart from other human or computer-controlled avatars. Teammates, whether they are other real players or virtual non-player characters, can induce conflict, competition or cooperation.
Gamification has been applied to almost every aspect of life.
Examples of gamification in business context include the U. Students are ranked in their class based on their earned grade-point average GPA , which is comparable to earning a high score in video games. Job application processes sometimes use gamification as a way to hire employees by assessing their suitability through questionnaires and mini games that simulate the actual work environment of that company.
Gamification has been widely applied in marketing. Gamification has also been used in customer loyalty programs. In , Starbucks gave custom Foursquare badges to people who checked in at multiple locations, and offered discounts to people who checked in most frequently at an individual store. Brandification in-game advertising : Messages, images or videos promoting a Brand, Product or Service within a game's visuals components.
Transmedia: The result of taking a media property and extending it into a different medium for both promotional and monetisation purposes. Nintendo's " GoldenEye" is a classic example. A video game created to advertise the originally titled movie. In the end, the promotional game brought in more money than the originally titled film. Example of this would be "I love Bees".
How Games Inspire Breakthrough Thinking
Advergames: Usually games based-off popular mobile game templates, such as ' Candy Crush ' or ' Temple Run'. These games are then recreated via platforms like WIX with software from the likes of Gamify , in order to promote Brands, Products and Services.
Usually to encourage engagement, loyalty and product education. These usually involve social leaderboards and rewards that are advertised via social media platforms like Facebook's Top 10 games. Gamification also has been used as a tool for customer engagement ,  and for encouraging desirable website usage behaviour.
How to Unleash Breakthrough Thinking in Business
A large number of different badges are available, and when a user's reputation points exceed various thresholds, the user gains additional privileges, eventually including moderator privileges. Gamification can be used for ideation structured brainstorming to produce new ideas. A study at MIT Sloan found that ideation games helped participants generate more and better ideas, and compared it to gauging the influence of academic papers by the numbers of citations received in subsequent research.
Users are awarded varying numbers of points for activities they perform in their workouts, and gain levels based on points collected. Users can also complete quests sets of related activities and gain achievement badges for fitness milestones. Public health researchers have studied the use of gamification in self-management of chronic diseases and common mental disorders,   STD prevention,   and infection prevention and control.
In a review of health apps in the Apple App Store , more than apps showed a positive correlation between gamification elements used and high user ratings. MyFitnessPal was named as the app that used the most gamification elements. Terri Schwartz IGN said it was "secretly the best exercise app out there," and that it changed her daily walking routine.
Zombies, Run! Mobile, context-sensitive serious games for sports and health have been called exergames. Gamification has been used in an attempt to improve employee productivity, healthcare, financial services, transportation, government,   and others.
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And these techniques are used to help drive positive employee and organizational outcomes. Crowdsourcing has been gamified in games like Foldit , a game designed by the University of Washington , in which players compete to manipulate proteins into more efficient structures.
A paper in science journal Nature credited Foldit's 57, players with providing useful results that matched or outperformed algorithmically computed solutions. Education and training are areas where there has been interest in gamification. Players maintained virtual habitats across the Canton of Zurich to attract and collect endangered species of animals.
Manual Play at Work: How games inspire breakthrough thinking
There is some indication that gamification can be particularly motivational for students with dyslexia in educational situations. Gamification is used in corporate training to motivate employees to apply what they learned in the training to their job, theoretically this should improve performance.
Alix Levine, an American security consultant, reports that some techniques that a number of extremist websites such as Stormfront and various terrorism-related sites used to build loyalty and participation can be described as gamification. As an example, Levine mentioned reputation scores. The Chinese government has announced that it will begin using gamification to rate its citizens in , implementing a Social Credit System in which citizens will earn points representing trustworthiness. Details of this project are still vague, but it has been reported that citizens will receive points for good behavior, such as making payments on time and educational attainments.
Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations. Such systems are excellent candidates for further 'gamification' in their design. Moreover, even traditional management information systems e. As illustration, Microsoft has announced plans to use gamification techniques for its Windows Phone 7 operating system design.
One important type of technological design in gamification is the player centered design. Based on the design methodology user-centered design , its main goal is to promote greater connectivity and positive behavior change between technological consumers. It has five steps that help computer users connect with other people online to help them accomplish goals and other tasks they need to complete.
The 5 steps are: an individual or company has to know their player their target audience , identify their mission their goal , understand human motivation the personality, desires, and triggers of the target audience , apply mechanics points, badges, leaderboards, etc. Gamification has also been applied to authentication. For example, the possibilities of using a game like Guitar Hero can help someone learn a password implicitly.
It is suggested that these games could be used to " level up " a password, thereby improving its strength over time. Gamification has been used to some extent by online casinos. For example, the Casumo and Casino Heroes brands use an incremental reward system to extend the typical player lifecycle and to encourage repeat vists and cash deposits at the casino in return for rewards such as free spins and cash match bonuses on subsequent deposits.
Though the term "gamification" first appeared online in the context of computer software in ,  [a] it did not gain popularity until Several researchers consider gamification closely related to earlier work on adapting game-design elements and techniques to non-game contexts. Deterding et al.